Research Question 2: What important developments in educational technology are missing from our list?

Instructions: Please use these prompts to help you consider what might need to be added to the current list of Horizon Topics. Add your thoughts as bullet points below, using a new bullet point for each new technology or topic. Please add your comments to previous entries if you agree or disagree.
a. What would you list among the established developments in technology that some cooperative extension programs are using today that arguably ALL cooperative extension programs should using broadly to support or enhance teaching and learning experiences?
b. What developments in technology that have a solid user base in consumer, entertainment, or other industries should cooperative extension programs be actively looking for ways to apply?
c. What are the key emerging technologies you see developing to the point that cooperative extension programs should begin to take notice during the next four to five years?

Each new topic entry must include a title, a description similar to the ones that are written now, and, if needed, a rationale as to why it is different from any of the existing topics. The NMC Horizon Project research team will investigate each nomination entered here to see if it meets the criteria set for new topics (eg., that the topic represents a "real" development in technology, as opposed to a concept, a new idea, or a proposal; that it is sufficiently developed that research, projects, and information about it exist; and that it has a demonstrable link, or strong potential link, to education).

Please "sign" your contributions by marking them with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples.

Compose your entries like this:

New Development in Technology
Brief description here (3-4 sentences)

New Developments in Technology Added by Panel

Games and Gamification
¨ Gamification or gamified learning is another important development. Kids are growing up on gaming systems and it is what they are used to. Learning has to involve entertainment anymore, you lose kids with the absence of technology in the learning environment. Providing interactive games and a “badge” type of reward system keeps them engaged and its fun.
I would add that gamification is an interesting trend that should be on the list. Jane McGonigal is a name we should know. - joeyp joeyp Jun 5, 2016
In Colorado we have been working in the digital badge space for over two years - as the space evolves it seems there will be great opportunity to drive healthy competition between learners by earning badges, and stackable credentials. This type of learning also allows for the learner to choose what areas to study, and how to study. [[user:michael.macklin|1465145611]==Combined with Existing RQ1 Topics== IoT Internet of Things- greg.johll greg.johll May 23, 2016 I think you are getting at this idea in the Networked Objects, but current language is IoT. From what I've been reading security is an afterthought for the most part. While I have yet to see where IoT fits in to either the development or delivery of Cooperative Extension educational programming, IoT itself may need to be what we have expertise in so we can teach others. A possible new content area for Extension specialist.
I agree with the statement above. As our "things" become more and more connected, they will increasingly be a part of our clients' quality of life, and therefore of interest to us as Extension educators. - May 27, 2016
This is kind of in the same category as my biohacking addition below...IoT is partly about new technologies, but I believe it's more about what we are doing (or can do) with technologies that are already available, and how it will impact our work (with individuals, families, and the fabric of society) in very profound ways. I think it absolutely needs to have a presence in these discussions. Is RQ3 the best place for this topic or does it also belong in RQ2? Perhaps we need an additional category? - andersonb andersonb Jun 5, 2016 [Editor's Note: Great points! I have updated the existing RQ1 topic "Networked Objects" to include Internet of Things, and am placing these comments there.]

What developments in technology that have a solid user base in consumer, entertainment, or other industries should cooperative extension programs be actively looking for ways to apply? Crowd sourcing could be used much more than it currently is (at least in our system) to assess support and interest in potential extension programs. It can also be used much more to leverage resources to fund innovative, nontraditional programs. - brian.h brian.h Jun 2, 2016 [Editor's Note: Adding these comments to existing RQ1 topic: Crowdsourcing.]

Online Learning
What are the key emerging technologies you see developing to the point that cooperative extension programs should begin to take notice during the next four to five years? There is a lot we can do with and learn from our Distance Education colleagues. They are meeting a demand for degrees in a way that is sustainable and stackable. While offering on-line degrees is nothing new, Extension in many states still does not work closely with Distance Education nor do they leverage resources, audiences, and technologies. We should take notice and learn from states that are successfully doing this. - brian.h brian.h Jun 2, 2016
Great point @brian.h - In Colorado we are working on this exact opportunity for collaboration. Our Division of Continuing Education has been working to build relationships with Extension through our Office of Engagement that would allow our office to deliver and develop programs using Extension personnel/expertise/content to expand their reach to the "non-consumer" allowing an increase in access to Extension programs and for successful programs to scale-up though online delivery. A key challenge to this is the funding streams for these type of programs. Continuing education units are often enterprise funded and must generate revenue. - michael.macklin michael.macklin Jun 5, 2016
Multimedia Design: As we go deeper into new technology, let's remember we need to know how to effectively use it if we have it. For instance, how much white space in an online module? Audio or not? We need to understand the best practices for ed tech. - cstamper cstamper Jun 3, 2016
[Editor's Note: Adding these comments to existing RQ1 topic: Online Learning]

Big Data
Integrated models that apply to the real world problems. I think this applies to both cloud computing, big data, and possibly others listed in the Horizon Topics. As more climate data, farming practices, phenotypic crop information, etc. is gathered, it will be used to form models of that can lead to best practices either in the field or in experiments. - jreich jreich Jun 3, 2016 [Editor's Note: Combining with existing RQ1 topic Big Data]

3D Video/360 Video
Another technology that should be on the list is 360 degree video. Cameras are improving. A quick example that our state is consider is having students take 360 video and Extension can use it to help recruit to our land grant university.- joeyp joeyp Jun 5, 2016 [Editor's Note: Combining with existing RQ1 topic 3D Video]

Moved to RQ3: Key Trends

Communities of Learning
It would seem that education has remained largely unchanged over the years. Classrooms have evolved to include more technology, or even become virtual; however, the function of education has remained largely formal and requires a content expert (faculty, teacher, Extension professional) decimating credible information to those interested or required to access the information. With developments in technology I would challenge Extension and LGU's to think about re-framing the conversation of education to focus on informal communities of learning leading to a multitude of pathways towards learner wants and needs. How can we use technology to provide learning in every day activities? How can reading a recipe for tonight's dinner lead to a better understanding of nutrition and food safety? How can setting up your family wi-fi lead to an exploration of computer networks and security? How can a family trip to the local sporting goods store provide STEM learning while parents are shopping? Learning opportunities surround us, how can we structure ways to capitalize on this learning through technology? - michael.macklin michael.macklin Jun 5, 2016 [Editor's Note: Great observations. This reads more like a trend so we're adding it to RQ3.]

Growth of Biohacking
(Bradd) - andersonb andersonb Jun 4, 2016(I'm honestly not sure where this topic goes. Please feel free to move it to RQ3, but I think it merits a place in our discussions. It has overlaps with wearable technology and IoT, and innovations like OpenBCI ( However, it differs from these other existing topics in that it's development is increasingly community-based (vs. things like wearables, whose development is influenced by ISV's), non-sanctioned by society (people bypass the medical professionals, who do not get involved with this), and in line with much of what we know about our next generation of clients (Generation Z, whose behaviors are influenced by coming of age in a world of invisible tech and constant war, with the sum total of human knowledge at their fingertips).)
Biohackers use existing technologies and service sector resources to enhance their ability to: (1) navigate obstacles (from passwords to the locks on their homes), (2) compensate for physical disabilities (such as degenerative vision/hearing), (3) orient oneself in an increasingly complicated world of invisible technology, and/or (4) engage in a process of self-discovery. Biohacking has become an established community-based movement that has been slowly moving inward from the fringe in the last decade. It benefits from crowdsourced funding and non-traditional parts of the service industry (particularly tattoo parlors) to bypass legal and mainstream cultural barriers.
- I feel strongly that this is an area of innovation that Extension needs to take notice of in the next few years, not because the entire world will become biohackers but because it is a symptom of larger issues (both positive and not) that can truly inform the work we do in ways that position Extension professionals for the future. These issues include direct impact on family dynamics, the social fabric of our society, and ever-larger issues of access and equity.
- My article contributions came at the end of the last period, so it's likely that most of this group has not seen or read them.
A parent tells their teen to put the iPhone away during dinner...what if you cant actually see if it's there or not?
How do non-augmented individuals compete and win in a technological world that others are practically hardwired into?
Will we ultimately become a world of "human media" (with wearables and other external tools used by non-enhanced individuals) or more of a "Matrix" style world (made possible by the development/adaptation of things like OpenBCI) that relies heavily on Borg-like enhancements, IoT-controlled robotics, etc.?
[Editor's Note: Wow, I love the thought you've put into this and the great explanations. This reads more like a trend than a technology, so we're moving it to RQ3 as a new Horizon trend. Well done.]

The Increase in DIY Learners
There is an opportunity for Extension to capitalize on multiple generations of learners embracing the DIY mentality. I would argue that this is the evolution of the fact-sheet. Taking that same scientific and research based information and delivering it to the "YouTube learner." 4-H has curriculum relevant to those not engaged in the formal program and even adults. Instead of looking of a quick video of how to replace an electrical socket, could we provide an online video/interactive fact sheet using 4-H curriculum to teach the science of circuits and electrical processes. If interested a learner could expand their knowledge by diving deeper into the subject and perhaps work as an electrician in retirement. - michael.macklin michael.macklin Jun 5, 2016 [Editor's Note: This fits in well with existing RQ3 Trend "Shift from Learners as Consumers to Creators" and is being added to that discussion.]

Moved to RQ4 Challenges

Advancing Technology Infrastructure
eXtension has prepared a pretty comprehensive list of educational technology topics and, personally, I am not familiar with all of the listed terms. What I see that is missing is what I would call "technology infrastructure"; i.e. actions that are taken to enhance technology use. Examples include 1. more formalized technology training on using various tech tools (e.g., how to do a video broadcast using Periscope) instead of expecting educators to just "pick it up," often on their own time; 2. systematic national impact evaluation metrics for educational technology teaching methods, and 3. Funded apprenticeship/mentoring/job shadowing/Boot Camp experiences for Extension educators who are using best practices to teach others.- oneill oneill May 24, 2016
I agree 100% with the above listed items. I also wasn't familiar with all of the listed items but for me what IS missing in my position as a Director of Digital Media is infrastructure and backing by stakeholders to fully train and encourage educators to utilize technology to reach students/clients. Technology comes naturally to some but is very tricky for others, even those with PhDs, to grasp. Those of us in a position of training others who are not 'tech savvy' have a unique challenge to encourage already busy people to learn yet another (albeit important) skill. Funding for new technologies is also often a difficulty as their merit may be difficult for non-tech savvy people to initially comprehend. Some of this blurs the line between challenges and new developments I realize, but often new developments in technology naturally also create new challenges. - accole accole Jun 1, 2016
I also agree with both Oneill and Accole. We need structure for the technology applications that we use. Our educators and staff are highly trained in their own area of expertise but not in the area of technology so the range of technology skills vary greatly. - heyboerg heyboerg Jun 6, 2016
Technology Support for Communication
In the past year our institution has adopted Zoom for both online meetings and webinars. Having the ability to hold meetings using video and being able to easily share applications and work together has changed our dynamic within our organization. It is much more engaging when you can actually see the people you are working with over a conference call. This is very important when the people you work with are located all across the state. This technology also works well with mobile and with low bandwidth which is important as Internet speeds also vary across our state.- heyboerg heyboerg Jun 6, 2016
[Editor's Note: This discussion reads more like a challenge than an emerging technology/device, therefore I am moving it to RQ4, combining it with existing Challenge "Continual Progress in Technology, Workflows, and Infrastructure]

Lack of Quality Assurance
Similar to the IoT comment, I think quality assurance could become a new content area for Extension specialist related to new technological developments. With the strong societal push for innovations and entrepreneurship, I see a significant lack in the area of quality assurance. While there are ISO classes, etc to actually certify QA people, if a community and Extension program is focused on engineering or increasing STEM activities, I think there will become a shift in the information needed to include what to consider and where to turn for all areas of QA and certifications. - amy.dronberger amy.dronberger Jun 1, 2016 [Editor's Note: This reads like a hearty challenged. Moved to RQ4 Challenges.]

Network Literacy and Metaliteracy
Perhaps it's assumed that these competencies would be embedded within each technology specific topic, but its worth pointing out the need for broad based, generalized network literacy and metaliteracy/digital literacy.
Our eXtension Network Literacy CoP defines the first as "a continuous process of becoming comfortable and proficient with a variety of tools to use in interactive online environments." Necessary because "A decentralized, global network of interlinked computing devices and the Internet has revolutionized the way we communicate, teach, learn, entertain, organize, conduct research, publish, transact, and promote. Citizenship in the Internet era, as well as full participation in 21st-century economic, social, and political life, demands new forms of literacy."
I would argue that because knowledge and intelligence is increasingly networked by its very nature (part of what some refer to as the "Fourth Industrial Revolution"), very different from the linear/hierarchical mental model many still have, a more general understanding and appreciation of networks is required. Mark Lubell and colleagues at UC Davis have been framing some of this in terms of "Extension 3.0" skills sets, the ability to work within and facilitate networks, not just one technology based.
And, coming from the library world I work from, some are calling for...
“Metaliteracy [which] promotes critical thinking and collaboration in a digital age, providing a comprehensive framework to effectively participate in social media and online communities. It is a unified construct that supports the acquisition, production, and sharing of knowledge in collaborative online communities. Metaliteracy challenges traditional skills-based approaches to information literacy by recognizing related literacy types and incorporating emerging technologies. Standard definitions of information literacy are insufficient for the revolutionary social technologies currently prevalent online,” in “Reframing Information Literacy as a Metaliteracy,” by Thomas P. Mackey and Trudi E. Jacobson, in the January 2011 issue of College & Research Libraries.
I see many folks in Extension struggling in all of these areas, to effectively and efficiently assess and implement technology tools which might dramatically (and appropriately) improve their impact. We need to pay greater attention
to general literacy skills like this, not just for those of us who grew up in the age of the printing press and snail mail, but also those who are quite comfortable using things like social media, but need to do so with a critical eye.- jeff.piestrak jeff.piestrak Jun 4, 2016 [Editor's Note: This discussion fits in well with existing RQ4 topic: Improving Digital Literacy and is being added there.]

Other Important Points

As we embrace new technologies, it important to remember just building it doesn't mean people will come. Constant evaluation and re-evaluation of best practices that lead to most learner change and positive experiences with technology is important. - ahenneman ahenneman May 17, 2016 - andersonb andersonb Jun 5, 2016

I agree with the statement above. Technology cannot and should not drive extension's educational program. Technology is a tool and one if used appropriately will; build engagement, increase access and provide opportunities for learners to contribute to program content and the educational process. - ken.lavalley ken.lavalley May 23, 2016 - michael.macklin michael.macklin Jun 5, 2016

Technology should be a tool to deliver extension programming; however, there are opportunities through big data analysis, and meta analysis that would allow for technology to inform new program development/or program enhancement. One of Extension's biggest assets is its reputation for credible and reliable information - that reputation is only as strong as our ability to deliver to those who want it when they need it - this is where technology plays its biggest role in my opinion. [[user:michael.macklin|1465145272]Thoughts from the Financial Security for All CoPParticipants: Vivian Anderson (MO); Erik Anderson (ID); Maria Pippidis (DE); Scott Matteson (MI); Andrew Zumwalt (MO); Karen Poff (VA); Elizabeth Kiss (KS);What are important recent developments in educational technology?¨ All the various aps and resources available to us that we haven’t had before.¨ The rise of mobile devices -- becoming the primary computing tool and supplanting desktop/laptop computers¨ The proliferation of video options in social media (both live and recorded video). Mark Zuckerberg recently said he believes that, in a few years, the majority of content that people consumer online will be video.¨ Virtual reality (VR) technology. Several prominent tech companies (Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Samsung, Sony, & others) are investing heavily in VR. It’s too early to tell whether VR will become a widely adopted technology.¨ Use of distance learning to reach not only our state’s clientele but across the globe. Use of social media to inform clientele about programs but also learning contentOne idea that I have been working on is thinking of a pathway of programming being carefully thought out to intentionally capitalize on this. Social media as a brief overview of a topic, followed by a short non-credit course, potentially leading into credit bearing programs at the University. - michael.macklin michael.macklin Jun 5, 2016

¨ The ability to learn on the go at any time via mobile learning is one important development. Allowing students the freedom of downloading apps and information wherever they happen to be while fitting their interest is valuable. Using mobile learning in addition to lectures and face to face interaction can really enhance the learning process.

¨ Technology is getting easier to adopt. People are livestreaming themselves playing video games! Anyone can be an educator at this level. As it gets easier, more people are making the leap to try new tech (example: NPR is worried about its podcasting efforts and how it competes with their radio stations.)

¨ Ability to provide webinars. Webinar apps, so you can attend webinars on your phone.

¨ Mobile optimized web content available outside of apps

¨ Use of mobile devices for instruction as a result of increased quality and widespread ownership

¨ Blending use of synchronous and asynchronous online learning

¨ TED Talk-style presentations seem to be expected now -- disadvantages those with other preferred presentation styles and strengths

¨ In general, expectations of sophistication and high production value as a result of technology, i.e. videocasts, infographics, consistent look and branding - oneill oneill Jun 3, 2016